The following timeline illustrates the development of bilingual Inuit education since 1841.

2015 – Establishment of teacher training program for Nunatsiavut Inuit, with strong Inuktut-learning component

2011 – National Committee on Inuit Education releases National Strategy on Inuit Education, with strong mandate for enhancing bilingual education across Inuit Nunangat

2009 – Canadian Inuit organizations and partners sign National Inuit Education Accord; objectives include strengthening bilingual Inuit education

2008 – Nunavut’s Education Act, Bill 21, mandates strong model of bilingual education

Nunavut’s Inuit Language Protection Act establishes the rights of Inuit to be educated in Inuktut

2007 – United Nations recognizes Indigenous mother tongue education as an inherent international right

2006 – Establishment of Master of Education program for Nunavut and Nunavik Inuit

Establishment of Master and PhD-level Second Language Acquisition Teacher Education (SLATE) program for Yup’ik educators

2005 – Labrador Inuit Land Claims Agreement recognizes Inuit right to use Inuktut and establishes Nunatsiavut self-government with authority over Inuit education

2004 – Northwest Territories Department of Education, Culture, and Employment’s Departmental Directive affirms its commitment to Indigenous language and culture-based education

2002 – Nunavut’s first Education Bill defeated in the Legislative Assembly, partially due to concerns that provisions for Inuktut language of instruction were too weak

1995 – Northwest Territories’ Education Act allows for instruction in Inuktut (an official language in the territory) in cases where there is significant demand and enough teachers and enough materials

1994 – Northwest Territories government produces Inuuqatigiit curriculum to enhance Inuit culture-based education

1993 – Nunavut Act creates de facto Inuit territory with the right to legislate in the areas of language and education, to come into effect in 1999

1987 – Baffin Divisional Board of Education publishes Our Future is Now: Directions for Education in the Baffin affirming competency in Inuktitut as a central purpose of education

1989 – Baffin Divisional Board of Education produces Piniaqtavut curriculum framework, based on Inuit parents’ desires for their children’s learning

1984 – Inuvialuit Final Agreement creates Inuvialuit Social Development Program to address concerns including education and maintenance of traditional practices in Inuvialuit Settlement Region

– Baffin Divisional Board of Education working toward goal of graduates “confidently fluent and literate in both Inuktitut and English”

1983 – Building Nunavut Report recommends Inuktut as language of instruction at all levels

1982 – Government of the Northwest Territories releases Learning Tradition and Change in the Northwest Territories a report of the Special Committee on Education (Co-chaired by Inuit MLA Tagak Curley and MLA Bruce McLaughlin recommending extending teaching in Inuktut through to Grade 10

– Canadian amended constitution and charter of rights and freedoms confirms protection of all treaty/land claims rights, existing or to be attained in the future

1979 – Nunavik teacher education program offered locally, in Nunavik

NWT Inuit teacher education program offered locally, in Iqaluit

1978 – Kativik School Board assumes responsibility of all education in Nunavik, with mandate to teach first three years in Inuktut, and then Inuktitut as a subject

1975 – Nunavik Inuit’s right to education in Inuktut is entrenched in the James Bay Northern Quebec Agreement

1973 & ND – Northwest Territories government publishes Elementary Education in the Northwest Territories and Learning in the Middle Years affirming the central role of Aboriginal languages in teaching

1971 – Northwest Territories government mandates Inuktut mother tongue schooling from Kindergarten to Grade 3

1968 – United States Bilingual Education Act opens doors for Yup’ik bilingual programs

1967 – Establishment of teacher training program for Nunavik Inuit

Establishment of teacher training program in Northwest Territories Inuit

1964 – Quebec and Canadian governments recognize Nunavik Inuit’s right to mother tongue education in Inuktut

1960 – Federal government representative proposes that Inuit students should be taught in Inuktut for the first two years of schooling; that teachers should be fluent in Inuktut; and that Inuit should be trained as teachers

1953 – UNESCO expert statement on bilingual education recommends mother tongue education for all students

1920s–1970s – Canadian residential and federal day schools pursue intentionally assimliationist, English-only agenda

Late 1800s–early 1900s – Inuktut literacy is introduced by missionaries and spreads through Arctic Canada

1841 – Greenlandic schools teach Inuit students in Greenlandic
Establishment of teacher training program for Greenlandic Inuit